International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research
Abbreviation: IJIASR | ISSN (Print): 2602-4810 | ISSN (Online): 2602-4535 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiasr

Volume 5 Issue 4 (December 2021)

Issue Information

Issue Information | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research Vol. 5 (4)
Issue Information

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiasr.2021.414

Abstract

Keywords:

Original articles

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research Vol. 5 (4)
Eggplant Anther Culture: Association Between Bud/Anther Size and Microspore Developmental Stage in Different Eggplant Genotypes

Buse Özdemir Çelik & Ahmet Naci Onus

pp. 175 - 185   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiasr.2021.414.1

Abstract

Anther culture is a valuable method for obtaining haploid and doubled haploid (DH) plants from microspores and there are several factors influencing the induction of androgenesis such as genotype and microspore development stage.  The aim of the present work was, therefore, to identify the bud stages, with maximum amount of young microspores (YM) and mid microspores (MM), thought to be most responsive to embryogenesis induction in anther cultured, and to investigate the influence of genotype on embryogenesis. In this work, first of all anthers and buds containing the highest percentage of YM and MM in four different F1 eggplant genotypes were identified.  Results revealed that a certain bud/ anther size group in each genotype might correspond to different microspore / pollen development stage in different genotypes.  After determining the best anther length in order to increase the presence of YM and MM corresponding anthers were collected for four genotypes and cultured. Embryo and regenerated plantlet production were taken into consideration to evaluate the response to anther culture for each genotype. Embryos were obtained in all 4 genotypes with variable percentages, ranging from 3,57%  to 40.67 %. As a conclusion, related bud and anther length determined for each genotype could be used as fast and reliable criteria to determine the most responsive microspore/pollen developmental stage, which has maximum amount of YM and MM, to increase the efficiency in eggplant anther culture.

Keywords: Solanum melongena L., Microspore Development Stage, Androgenesis, Doubled Haploids, Genotype

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research Vol. 5 (4)
Evaluation of Proline, Chlorophyll, and Carotenoid Contents of Two Globe Artichokes [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori] Leaves Based on the Growing Season

Tuğçe Özsan Kılıç, Timur Tongur & Ahmet Naci Onus

pp. 186 - 194   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiasr.2021.414.2

Abstract

Globe artichoke [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori], a member of the Asteraceae family, has been known since ancient times. Edible parts of this valuable vegetable are rich in antioxidants and polyphenols as well as possessing healing properties against certain diseases. When the life cycle of plants is taken into consideration, the processes which are highly affected by environmental conditions are photosynthesis and cell growth. Chlorophyll level is known as a good indicator of the photosynthesis of plants. Carotenoids, one of the important functions of which protects chlorophyll from photo-oxidation, can prevent the destruction of chlorophyll. Therefore, chlorophyll and carotenoids play an important role in photosynthesis and the protection of photosynthetic pathways against harmful free radicals. The proline concentration present in various plants is increased in many different stress conditions, such as cold, temperature, salinity, drought, UV, and heavy metals, thus, providing better tolerance to stress conditions. The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate the proline, chlorophyll (a and b), and carotenoid contents of the young and mature leaves of two OP cultivars (Bayrampaşa and Sakız) based on different growing seasons. Obtained results demonstrated that there were differences between two OP artichoke cultivars based on the growing season and young and mature leaves with regards to proline, chlorophyll (a and b), and carotenoid contents. Findings revealed that proline and chlorophyll b levels in autumn were quite promising, while in terms of chlorophyll a and carotenoid levels winter was prominent. Regarding the young and mature leaves, high proline and chlorophyll a levels were found to be dominant in young leaves. On the other hand, chlorophyll b and carotenoid were more accumulated in mature leaves. Turkey has several other globe artichoke cultivars and the findings of the present study may play a supportive role in determining proline, chlorophyll (a and b), and carotenoid contents for combating several environmental stress factors.

Keywords: Artichoke, Carotenoid, Chlorophyll, Proline

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research Vol. 5 (4)
Okaliptus balının PC3, CaCO2, HeLa ve HuH7 Kanser Hücre Hatları Üzerindeki Sitotoksisitesinin Değerlendirilmesi

Bekir Çöl, Merve Sezer Kürkçü & Ali Sorucu

pp. 195 - 206   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiasr.2021.414.3

Abstract

Prostat, rahim ağzı, kolorektal ve karaciğer kanserlerinin tedavileri sıklıkla yaşam kalitesinin düşmesine neden olan cerrahi ve/veya radyoterapi tedavilerini içermektedir. Kanser tedavisinde kullanılmak için potansiyel doğal antikanser kaynakların araştırılması dünyada devam vermektedir. Bu çalışma, Türkiye’den elde edilen okaliptüs balının farklı konsantrasyonlarının seçilen kanser hücre hatları üzerindeki sitotoksisitesini araştırmayı amaçlamıştır. Bu amaçla, PC3 insan prostat kanseri hücre hattı, HeLa rahim ağzı kanseri hücre hattı, CaCo2 kolorektal kanseri hücre hattı ve HuH7 karaciğer kanseri hücre hatları kullanılmıştır. Hücre hatlarına 48 ve 72 saat boyunca çeşitli konsantrasyonlarda (%0.78 - %50 arası) okaliptüs balı uygulamasını takiben, sitotoksisite tayini için, hücre canlılık testi (MTT) yapılmış ve okaliptüs balının her bir konsantrasyonunda kanser hücrelerinin yüzde canlılık oranları belirlenmiştir. Okaliptus balı uygulaması ile hücre hatlarının canlılıklarını %80 ve daha fazla kaybettikleri konsantrasyonlara ve bu konsantrasyonlarda hücrelerin canlılık oranlarına bakıldığında, %6.25 okaliptus balı konsantrasyonunda HeLa hücre hattının 48 ve 72 saatlerinde sırasıyla %7.6 ve %7.7, CaCO2 hücre hattının 72 saatinde %20.7;  %12.5 okaliptus balı konsantrasyonunda HuH7 hücre hattının 48 ve 72 saatlerinde sırasıyla % 5.3 ve % 5.1, PC3 hücre hattının 72 saatinde %5.2, CaCO2 hücre hattının 48 saatinde %20.4; %25 okaliptus balı konsantrasyonunda PC3 hücre hattının 48 saatinde %7.7 canlılık oranları gösterdikleri görülmüştür.

Keywords: PC3 (prostat kanseri), HeLa (rahim ağzı kanseri), HuH7 (karaciğer kanseri), CaCo2 (kolorektal kanseri), Okaliptüs balı, MTT assay, sitotoksisite

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research Vol. 5 (4)
Effect of Blanching and Sun-Drying on the Nutritional and Microbiological Qualities of Vegetables in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria

Bilyaminu Garba, Iormanga Mvendager, Abdulkareem Idris, Aleru Olarunshola Femi, Abubakar Muhammad Sani & Aisha Mustapha Olaitan

pp. 207 - 219   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiasr.2021.414.4

Abstract

Vegetable has been identified as a potential tool to curb the menace of malnutrition; however, leafy vegetables are highly perishable. This study evaluated the nutritional and microbiological qualities of vegetables before and after blanching and solar-drying. The vegetables were evaluated for proximate and microbiological analysis using streak and pour plate methods. Four bacteria and seven fungi were isolated and characterized, their percentages of occurrence show; Pseudomonas putida (25%), Bacillus cereus (12.5%), Staphylococcus aureus (37.5%), Aeromonas hydrophila 25%. Also, Aspergillus niger 25%, Aspergillus flavus 12.5%, Rhizopus stolonifer (16.66%), Mucor micheli (8.34%), Candida albicans (8.34%), Alternaria alternate (16.66%) and Rhizopus oligoporus (12.5%). Nutritional compositions were determined. These results showed evidence of contaminations by potential pathogens during production and a slate change in nutritional content of the preserved vegetables. It is now important to pay attention on microbial qualities of leafy vegetables to safeguard the health of the consumers and forestall the possible risk of vegetable borne diseases.

Keywords: Liliaceae, Colchicaceae, Gagea, Tulipa, Fritillaria, Lilium, Colchicum, Ethnobotanical Uses in Turkey

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research Vol. 5 (4)
Ulupınar Gözlemevinde Fiziksel Risk Etmenleri Araştırması

Halife Çağlar & Sezgin Aygün

pp. 220 - 250   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiasr.2021.414.5

Abstract

Bu çalışma, kapalı ortamların iç hava kalitesi (İHK) ile elektrikli ve elektronik cihazların elektromanyetik radyasyonunu (EMR) tespit etmek amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Kapalı ortam olarak Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi Astrofizik Araştırma Merkezi (ÇAAM) ve Ulupınar Gözlemevi ele alınmıştır. Bu kapalı ortamın hava kalitesi düzeyleri ve araştırmacıların maruz kalabileceği radyasyonun miktarları tespit edilmiştir. Bununla beraber sıcaklık ve nem ölçümleri de yapılmıştır. Araştırma merkezi ve teleskop kubbelerinin İHK ölçümleri PCE-RCM 15 partikül sayım cihazı ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Gözlemevinde bulunan teleskoplar, elektrik panoları, kubbe motorları ve bilgisayarlar başta olmak üzere elektrikli araç gereçlerin elektrik alan ve manyetik alan şiddetleri ise CE belgeli GM 3120 elektromanyetik radyasyon ölçüm cihazı ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Hava kalitesi ölçümleri araştırmacı ve ziyaretçilerin yoğun olarak bulunduğu ve gözlemlerin gerçekleştiği zaman dilimlerinde kesintisiz olarak kaydedilmiştir. Elektromanyetik radyasyon ölçümleri ise kaynağı en yakın noktandan başlanarak 0,1 m, 0,3 m ve 1 m mesafelerde gerçekleşmiştir. Teleskopların ve teleskop ofislerinin elektromanyetik radyasyon değerleri ve iç hava ortam ölçüm değerleri oldukça düşük değerlerde tespit edilmiştir. Bu nedenle araştırmacı ve ziyaretçiler için ÇAAM ve Ulupınar Gözlemevi’nin elektromanyetik radyasyon miktarının ve kapalı ortam hava kalitesinin iş sağlığı ve güvenliği açısından risk oluşturmadığını söylemek mümkündür.

Keywords: Elektromanyetik radyasyon, İş Sağlığı ve Güvenliği, Ulupınar Gözlemevi, Hava Kalitesi

Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research Vol. 5 (4)
Evaluation of Antibacterial Potency of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Mentha piperita

Lawal Garba, Abdulhamid Abdulfatah, M.T. Adamu, H. Ismail, I. Yusuf & A.S. Dahiru

pp. 251 - 262   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiasr.2021.414.6

Abstract

The Mentha piperita is an aromatic perennial herb, a member of the family Lamiaceae (Labiatae) that produces creeping stolons, growing in the range of 45 to 80 cm tall. Fungal endophytes reside in the healthy plant tissues to produce several metabolic products such as plants growth hormones, anti-phagocytes to biological feeding, medicinal ingredients, and many products of biological activities. Hence, they are regarded as a reservoir of active metabolites for the development of novel drugs. Although, many endophytic fungi have been reported from different plants, reports on fungal endophytes from M. piperita are very limited. In this study, fungal endophytes from the leaf and stem of M. piperita were successfully evaluated for their potential antibacterial properties. Healthy leaves of the peppermint were prepared and cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates for 5 to 7 days at 28 oC until fungal colonies appeared. Fifteen (15) fungal isolates were identified based on cultural and morphological characteristics and had six (6) rapid growing species, namely Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizopus arrhizus, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternate which were selected and evaluated their crude metabolites against c using agar well diffusion method. The susceptibility study showed a remarkable in vitro antibacterial activity of the fungal crude metabolites against all the test bacteria which increased with an increased incubation time of 7, 14 and 21 days incubation. However, the fungi displayed maximal zone of growth inhibition after 21 days of incubation. In conclusion, fungal endophytes were isolated from M. piperita and evaluated in vitro antibacterial activity of their crude metabolites against the test bacterial isolates.

Keywords: Antibacterial potential, Endophytic Fungi, Mentha piperita, Test bacteria, Bioassay

Review articles

Review article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research Vol. 5 (4)
Cheese-Algae Interactions

Ichrak Mesloub & Seyhun Yurdugül

pp. 263 - 275   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiasr.2021.414.7

Abstract

Algae are  everywhere in this planet. They have been used in a wide variety of industries because of unique chemical composition and high concentration of bioactive substances. The agar, alginate and carrageenan are products which come from the gelling, thickening and stabilizing properties of algae. In addition algae is considered to be an important supplement and an additive to handy foods. They are also added up to products of fish and oils, to promote their quality, as well as to meat products like steaks, pastry , frankfurters and sausages.  Algae is also used in grain products and their derivatives , like bread, pasta and flour. Because of their critical characteristics algae plays a role in the fermented functional food structure. The majority of fermented products made with algae are dairy products and their derivatives. Mixed fermented products, which contain an intensive population of lactic acid bacteria and algae, contain biologically active metabolites of natural origin, which enables not only the creation of high-nutrient products, but also the creation of a novel types of fermented food.

Keywords: Cheese, Algae, fermentation , dairy products