International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research
Abbreviation: IJIASR | ISSN (Print): 2602-4810 | ISSN (Online): 2602-4535 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiasr

Original article    |    Open Access
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research 2021, Vol. 5(4) 186-194

Evaluation of Proline, Chlorophyll, and Carotenoid Contents of Two Globe Artichokes [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori] Leaves Based on the Growing Season

Tuğçe Özsan Kılıç, Timur Tongur & Ahmet Naci Onus

pp. 186 - 194   |  DOI:

Published online: December 31, 2021  |   Number of Views: 108  |  Number of Download: 478


Globe artichoke [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori], a member of the Asteraceae family, has been known since ancient times. Edible parts of this valuable vegetable are rich in antioxidants and polyphenols as well as possessing healing properties against certain diseases. When the life cycle of plants is taken into consideration, the processes which are highly affected by environmental conditions are photosynthesis and cell growth. Chlorophyll level is known as a good indicator of the photosynthesis of plants. Carotenoids, one of the important functions of which protects chlorophyll from photo-oxidation, can prevent the destruction of chlorophyll. Therefore, chlorophyll and carotenoids play an important role in photosynthesis and the protection of photosynthetic pathways against harmful free radicals. The proline concentration present in various plants is increased in many different stress conditions, such as cold, temperature, salinity, drought, UV, and heavy metals, thus, providing better tolerance to stress conditions. The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate the proline, chlorophyll (a and b), and carotenoid contents of the young and mature leaves of two OP cultivars (Bayrampaşa and Sakız) based on different growing seasons. Obtained results demonstrated that there were differences between two OP artichoke cultivars based on the growing season and young and mature leaves with regards to proline, chlorophyll (a and b), and carotenoid contents. Findings revealed that proline and chlorophyll b levels in autumn were quite promising, while in terms of chlorophyll a and carotenoid levels winter was prominent. Regarding the young and mature leaves, high proline and chlorophyll a levels were found to be dominant in young leaves. On the other hand, chlorophyll b and carotenoid were more accumulated in mature leaves. Turkey has several other globe artichoke cultivars and the findings of the present study may play a supportive role in determining proline, chlorophyll (a and b), and carotenoid contents for combating several environmental stress factors.

Keywords: Artichoke, Carotenoid, Chlorophyll, Proline

How to Cite this Article

APA 6th edition
Kilic, T.O., Tongur, T. & Onus, A.N. (2021). Evaluation of Proline, Chlorophyll, and Carotenoid Contents of Two Globe Artichokes [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori] Leaves Based on the Growing Season . International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, 5(4), 186-194. doi: 10.29329/ijiasr.2021.414.2

Kilic, T., Tongur, T. and Onus, A. (2021). Evaluation of Proline, Chlorophyll, and Carotenoid Contents of Two Globe Artichokes [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori] Leaves Based on the Growing Season . International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, 5(4), pp. 186-194.

Chicago 16th edition
Kilic, Tugce Ozsan, Timur Tongur and Ahmet Naci Onus (2021). "Evaluation of Proline, Chlorophyll, and Carotenoid Contents of Two Globe Artichokes [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori] Leaves Based on the Growing Season ". International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research 5 (4):186-194. doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2021.414.2.

  1. Ahmad, M. A., Murali, P. V., & Panneerselvam, R. (2013). Drought stress induced biochemical alterations in two varieties of Paspalum scrobiculatum L. International Journal of Current Science, (7), 80-96. [Google Scholar]
  2. Ashraf, M., Arfan, M., Shahbaz, M., Ahmad, A., & Jamil, A. (2002). Gas exchange characteristics and water relations in some elite okra cultivars under water deficit. Photosynthetica, 40(4), 615-620. [Google Scholar]
  3. Baghbani-Arani, A., Modarres-Sanavy, S. A. M., Mashhadi-Akbar-Boojar, M., & Mokhtassi-Bidgoli, A. (2017). Towards improving the agronomic performance, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and pigments in fenugreek using zeolite and vermicompost under deficit water stress. Industrial Crops and Products, 109, 346-357. [Google Scholar]
  4. Carillo, P., & Gibon, Y. (2011). Protocol: extraction and determination of proline. PrometheusWiki. [Google Scholar]
  5. Chaves, M. M. (2009). Flexas., Pinheiro C. Photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: regulation mechanisms from whole plant to cell. Ann. Bot, 103, 551-560. [Google Scholar]
  6. Fratianni, F., Tucci, M., De Palma, M., Pepe, R., & Nazzaro, F. (2007). Polyphenolic composition in different parts of some cultivars of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus (L.) Fiori). Food chemistry, 104(3), 1282-1286. [Google Scholar]
  7. Gebhardt, R. (2001). Anticholestatic activity of flavonoids from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and of their metabolites. Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research, 7, 316-320. [Google Scholar]
  8. Ghosh, P. K., Ramesh, P., Bandyopadhyay, K. K., Tripathi, A. K., Hati, K. M., Misra, A. K., & Acharya, C. L. (2004). Comparative effectiveness of cattle manure, poultry manure, phosphocompost and fertilizer-NPK on three cropping systems in vertisols of semi-arid tropics. I. Crop yields and system performance. Bioresource technology, 95(1), 77-83. [Google Scholar]
  9. Gong, H., Zhu, X., Chen, K., Wang, S., & Zhang, C. (2005). Silicon alleviates oxidative damage of wheat plants in pots under drought. Plant science, 169(2), 313-321. [Google Scholar]
  10. Hazrati, S., Tahmasebi-Sarvestani, Z., Modarres-Sanavy, S. A. M., Mokhtassi-Bidgoli, A., & Nicola, S. (2016). Effects of water stress and light intensity on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and pigments of Aloe vera L. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 106, 141-148. [Google Scholar]
  11. Kadkhodaie, A., Zahedi, M., Razmjoo, J., & Pessarakli, M. (2014). Changes in some anti-oxidative enzymes and physiological indices among sesame genotypes (Sesamum indicum L.) in response to soil water deficits under field conditions. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 36(3), 641-650. [Google Scholar]
  12. Lattanzio, V., Kroon, P. A., Linsalata, V., & Cardinali, A. (2009). Globe artichoke: A functional food and source of nutraceutical ingredients. Journal of functional foods, 1(2), 131-144. [Google Scholar]
  13. Lichtenthaler, H. K., & Wellburn, A. R. (1983). Determinations of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents. Biochemical Society Transactions 603rd Meeting, vol 11. Liverpool 591–592. [Google Scholar]
  14. Lombardo, S., Pandino, G., Mauromicale, G., Knödler, M., Carle, R., & Schieber, A. (2010). Influence of genotype, harvest time and plant part on polyphenolic composition of globe artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus (L.) Fiori]. Food Chemistry, 119(3), 1175-1181. [Google Scholar]
  15. Maroco, J. P., Rodrigues, M. L., Lopes, C., & Chaves, M. M. (2002). Limitations to leaf photosynthesis in field-grown grapevine under drought—metabolic and modelling approaches. Functional Plant Biology, 29(4), 451-459. [Google Scholar]
  16. Martínez, J. P., Silva, H. F. L. J., Ledent, J. F., & Pinto, M. (2007). Effect of drought stress on the osmotic adjustment, cell wall elasticity and cell volume of six cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). European journal of agronomy, 26(1), 30-38. [Google Scholar]
  17. Maxwell, K., & Johnson, G. N. (2000). Chlorophyll fluorescence—a practical guide. Journal of experimental botany, 51(345), 659-668. [Google Scholar]
  18. Mirzai, M., Moeini, A., & Ghanati, F. (2013). Effects of drought stress on the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in two canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. J. Agric. Sci. Technol. 15, 593–602. [Google Scholar]
  19. Nandwal, A. S., Bharti, S., & Singh, I. (1992). Assimilate partitioning in pigeonpea under two levels of drought and during recovery. Biologia plantarum, 34(3), 267-273. [Google Scholar]
  20. Nouraei, S., Rahimmalek, M., & Saeidi, G. (2018). Variation in polyphenolic composition, antioxidants and physiological characteristics of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus Hayek L.) as affected by drought stress. Scientia Horticulturae, 233, 378-385. [Google Scholar]
  21. Pandino, G., Lombardo, S., & Mauromicale, G. (2013). Globe artichoke leaves and floral stems as a source of bioactive compounds. Industrial Crops and Products, 44, 44-49. [Google Scholar]
  22. Pandino, G., Lombardo, S., Moglia, A., Portis, E., Lanteri, S., & Mauromicale, G. (2015). Leaf polyphenol profile and SSR-based fingerprinting of new segregant Cynara cardunculus genotypes. Frontiers in plant science, 5, 800. [Google Scholar]
  23. Ranjbar, F. A., & Dehghani, B. R. (2016). Impact of salinity stress on photochemical efficiency of photosystem ii, chlorophyll content and nutrient elements of nitere bush (Nitraria schoberi L.) Plants. Journal of Rangeland Science, 6(1). [Google Scholar]
  24. Romani, A., Pinelli, P., Cantini, C., Cimato, A., & Heimler, D. (2006). Characterization of Violetto di Toscana, a typical Italian variety of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Food Chemistry, 95(2), 221-225. [Google Scholar]
  25. Ruiz-Aceituno, L., García-Sarrió, M. J., Alonso-Rodriguez, B., Ramos, L., & Sanz, M. L. (2016). Extraction of bioactive carbohydrates from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts using microwave assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction. Food chemistry, 196, 1156-1162. [Google Scholar]
  26. Sankar, B., Jaleel, C. A., Manivannan, P., Kishorekumar, A., Somasundaram, R., & Panneerselvam, R. (2008). Relative efficacy of water use in five varieties of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. under water-limited conditions. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 62(1), 125-129. [Google Scholar]
  27. Siadat-Jamian, S., Aghaalikhani, M., Soufizadeh, S., & Mokhtassi-Bidgoli, A. (2019). Qualitative and quantitative response of artichoke to irrigation treatments and planting densities. Scientia Horticulturae, 253, 422-428. [Google Scholar]
  28. Smirnoff, N., & Cumbes, Q. J. (1989). Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of compatible solutes. Phytochemistry, 28(4), 1057-1060. [Google Scholar]
  29. Szabados, L., & Savouré, A. (2010). Proline: a multifunctional amino acid. Trends in plant science, 15(2), 89-97. [Google Scholar]
  30. Vamanu, E., Vamanu, A., Nita, S., & Colceriu, S. (2011). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethanol extracts of Cynara scolymus (Cynarae folium, Asteraceae family). Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 10(6), 777-783. [Google Scholar]