Issue Information | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research Vol. 2 (4)Issue Information
pp. i - vi | DOI: 10.29329/ijiasr.2018.173
Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research Vol. 2 (4)In-vitro Anti-bacterial Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Leaf Crude Extracts of Solanum Nigrum (Black Night Shade) of Bushenyi District - Uganda on Selected Enteric Bacteria
Niwagaba Silivano, Ibrahim Ntulume, Okweny David, Abubakar Sunusi Adam, Aziz Katabazi, Micheal Tirwomwe, Albert Nyanchoka Onchweri, Muhwezi Reagan, Yashim J. S. Blessing, Bwalhuma Abraham, Shabohurira Ambrose, Bwanika Richard & Adamu Almustapha Aliero
pp. 112 - 125 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiasr.2018.173.1
This research was aimed to determine the antibacterial activity of ethanolic and aqueous crude extracts of Solanum nigrum leaves against some selected enteric bacteria. Fresh leaves of S. nigrum were collected from different garden of Bushenyi district Western Uganda and shade dried. Extraction was done by using standard methods. Phytochemical analyses of both ethanolic and aqueous crude extracts were also done. Antibacterial activities of both aqueous and ethanolic crude extracts were determined against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp, and Shigella sp and Salmonella typhimurium by using agar well diffusion method and compared to the standard antibiotics Ciprofloxacin (5µg/mL) and Cotrimoxazole (25µg/mL). The results of phytochemicals analyses from this study revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, and saponins, reducing sugars, terpenoids and steroids from the two extracts. The ethanolic extract was effective only against E. coli at concentrations of 1, 0.5 and 0.25g/mL with 20.33±0.33, 15.17±0.17 and 8.33±0.17 mm as mean ± SEM zones of inhibition respectively, while aqueous crude extract was effective against E. coli only at concentration of 1g/mL with 9.17±01.7 mm as the mean ± SEM zone of inhibition. The ethanolic crude extract had lower MIC and MBC values of 250 mg/mL and 500 mg/mL respectively compared to the aqueous crude extract with MIC and MBC values of 500 mg/mL and >1000 mg/mL respectively. The results of this study concluded that both ethanolic and aqueous crude extract of S. nigrum leaves had activity only against clinical E.coli. Ethanolic leaves crude extract of S. nigrum was more effective than the aqueous crude leaves extract. This may provide evidences for its usage as herbal remedy against enteric infections caused by E. coli.
Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Solanum nigrum , Aqueous and ethanolic crude extracts, Enteric bacteria.
Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research Vol. 2 (4)Phytochemical Characterization and Antimicrobial Potentialities of Two Medicinal plants, Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All and Matricaria chamomilla (L.)
Kaissa Boudıeb, Sabrina Ait Slimane - Ait Kaki, Hakima Oulebsir-Mohandkaci & Amel Bennacer
pp. 126 - 139 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiasr.2018.173.2
Objective of the study was to evaluate the phytochemical characterization and antimicrobial effectiveness of two medicinal plants belonging to the Asteraceae family, growing spontaneously in the region of Boumerdes (Northeast Algeria) namely Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All and Matricaria chamomilla (L.). For this purpose, it was proposed to optimize the extraction parameters of the phenolic compounds of the aerial parts of two chosen species. The first step was intended to study the effect of different extraction solvents (water, chloroform and methanol) on the contents of different metabolites of these species. The qualitative screening of the aerial part of chamomile allowed to highlight different families of chemical compounds namely; flavonoids, total tannins, condensed tannins, gallic tannins, alkaloids, saponosides, glucosides, mucilages and total absence of anthocyanins and starch. This was confirmed by a quantitative analysis based on the determination of total phenolic compounds by spectrophotometry in the presence of the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent determined from the calibration curve of gallic acid. The results showed that the water was the best extraction solvent. At the second stage of our study, antimicrobial activity of the extracts was determined on six microbial strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Escherichia coli and Fusarium sp., according to the disk diffusion method, and gave zones of inhibition ranging from 7 to 15 mm. Thus, the extracts had a moderately inhibitory activity and have reacted positively on at least one of the microbial strains tested with the exception of the fungal flora. However, the methanolic extract of M. chamomilla revealed a strong activity against to Pseudomonas sp. with an inhibition zone estimated at 22.5 mm.
Keywords: Chamaemelum nobile, Matricaria chamomilla - Phytochemical Screening - Polyphenols - Antimicrobial activity
Original article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research Vol. 2 (4)Impaired Dynamic Thiol/disulfide Homeostasis and Pro-inflammatory Parameters in Hand Osteoarthritis
Betül Özbek İpteç, Gamze Avcıoğlu, Ömer Faruk Şendur & Leyla Didem Kozacı
pp. 140 - 151 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiasr.2018.173.3
Background: Reactive oxygen species have a role in pathogenesis of osteoarthritis.
The main objective of this study was to determine other oxidant/antioxidant substances and inflammatory markers in hand osteoarthritis patients.
Methods: Thirty healthy controls and 50 patients with hand osteoarthritis (HOA) were included in the study. All patients were questioned about age, sex, history of the symptoms, presence of sensitive and swollen joints, smoking habits, other systemic diseases and medications. Serum thiol-disulfide homeostasis tests (TDHT), catalase (CAT), ceruloplasmin (Cp), arylesterase (ARES), paraoxonase (PON), stimulated paraoxonase (SPON), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), routine biochemistry tests and inflammatory markers: Interleukin-1b (IL-1b), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured.
Results: MPO, TDHT, MDA, MPO and inflammatory markers (IL-6, CRP and ESR) were significantly different in HOA patients from those in control group (p=0.005; p=0.001; p=0.014; p=0.005; p=0.012; p=0.003 and p<0.001, respectively).
Conclusion: Our results support that oxidative stress increases in HOA and with the severity of the disease, suggesting that oxidative stress might be involved in pathogenesis of HOA.
Keywords: Oxidative stress, Thiol disulfide homeosthasis, Osteoarthritis, Erosive hand osteoarthritis, Non-erosive hand osteoarthritis, Inflammatory markers, Cytokines
Review article | International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research Vol. 2 (4)Doğal Öldürücü (Natural Killer: NK) Hücreler ve Kanser İmmunoterapisi
Ayfer Karlıtepe & Mehtap Kılıç Eren
pp. 152 - 161 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiasr.2018.173.4
Doğal öldürücü hücreler (Natural Killer: NK) birçok aktivatör ve inhibitör reseptörlere sahip olan CD3- CD56+ lenfositlerdir. NK hücrelerinin kanser tedavisine yönelik olarak otolog ve allojenik kullanımları söz konusudur. Bunun yanı sıra ticari olarak elde edilen NK hücreleri ve bazı kaynaklardan (kordon kanı ve kemik iliği hematopoietik kök hücreleri, embriyonik ve indüklenmiş pluripotent kök hücreler (IPS)) farklılaştırılarak elde edilen NK hücreleri de kanser tedavisinde kullanılmaktadır. NK hücre bazlı immünoterapinin, kanser tedavisine yönelik etkin bir tedavi yaklaşımı oluşturabileceği yapılan çalışmalar ile desteklenmektedir. Derlemede pankreas, over, prostat, akciğer, kolon ve meme kanserleri yanısıra glioma ile ilgili NK hücre bazlı immünoterapi çalışmalarına yer verilmiştir.
Keywords: Doğal öldürücü hücreler, Kanser