International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research
Abbreviation: IJIASR | ISSN (Print): 2602-4810 | ISSN (Online): 2602-4535 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiasr

Original article    |    Open Access
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research 2022, Vol. 6(2) 23-33

Investigation on Biosynthesis of Phytosterol Compounds in Ayvalık Olive Variety (Olea europaea L.) During Ripening under Conventional and Organic Cultivation Conditions

Esra Rüveyda Özdemi̇r & Murat Şeker

pp. 23 - 33   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiasr.2022.454.1

Published online: June 30, 2022  |   Number of Views: 13  |  Number of Download: 36


Abstract

Olive oil obtained from the fruit of olive trees (Olea europaea L.) belonging to the Oleaceae family; basically consists of two parts: saponifiable and unsaponifiable parts. The saponifiable fraction represents about 98% by weight of the oil. On the contrary, the unsaponifiable fraction constitutes about 2% of the total oil weight.

Phytosterols constitute the largest part of the unsaponifiable fraction and are the most important parameter to establish the purity of olive oil. Olive oil quality is affected by many factors, the most important being the ripening stage. Phytosterol content changes with maturation. Because the metabolic events in its structure continue until the fruit ripens. This study was carried out in Ayvalık olive variety grown with organic and conventional growing techniques during the 2019 and 2020 seasons. Fruits obtained from Geyikli region of Çanakkale province were harvested in 8 different maturity stages (September– December) at 15-day intervals. Phytosterol contents of fruits and changes in phytosterols in olive ripening process were determined periodically by gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) technique.

At the end of the study, the total phytosterol content of the fruits harvested from both conventional and organic orchards during both production seasons in both years, depending on the maturity index. Phytosterol components were found to increase regularly until December, but it decrease after December. While the maximum total sterol amount was determining 2.008 g kg-1 on 08.12.2019, it was 2.520 g kg-1 on 06.12.2020. After this date, it was observed that the total sterol content decreased as a result of over-ripening.

Keywords: Olea europaea L., Maturity Index, Total sterol, Sterol components, β-sitosterol, chromatography


How to Cite this Article

APA 6th edition
Ozdemi̇r, E.R. & Seker, M. (2022). Investigation on Biosynthesis of Phytosterol Compounds in Ayvalık Olive Variety (Olea europaea L.) During Ripening under Conventional and Organic Cultivation Conditions . International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, 6(2), 23-33. doi: 10.29329/ijiasr.2022.454.1

Harvard
Ozdemi̇r, E. and Seker, M. (2022). Investigation on Biosynthesis of Phytosterol Compounds in Ayvalık Olive Variety (Olea europaea L.) During Ripening under Conventional and Organic Cultivation Conditions . International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, 6(2), pp. 23-33.

Chicago 16th edition
Ozdemi̇r, Esra Ruveyda and Murat Seker (2022). "Investigation on Biosynthesis of Phytosterol Compounds in Ayvalık Olive Variety (Olea europaea L.) During Ripening under Conventional and Organic Cultivation Conditions ". International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research 6 (2):23-33. doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2022.454.1.

References
  1. Anastasopoulos, E., Kalogeropoulos, N., Kaliora, A.C., Kountouri, A. & Andrikopoulos, N.K. (2011). The influence of ripening and crop year on quality indices, polyphenols, terpenic acids, squalene, fatty acid profile, and sterols virgin olive oil (Koroneiki cv.) produced by organic versusnon-organic growing method. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 46:170–178 p. [Google Scholar]
  2. Ben Temime, S., Manai, H., Methenni, K., Baccouri, B., Abaza, L., Daoud, D., Casas, J.S., Bueno, E.O. & Zorrouk, M. (2008). Sterolic composition of Chetoui virgin olive oil: influence of geographical origin. Food Chemistry, 110, 368-374. [Google Scholar]
  3. Boskou, D. (1999). Non-nutrient Antioxidants and Stability of Frying Oils, Frying of Food, Lancaster. Technomic Publishing Co, Inc., 183-204 p. [Google Scholar]
  4. Boskou, D. (2002). Olive oil. In: Gunstone FD (ed) Vegetable Oils in Food Technology. CRC Press, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, 244–277 p. [Google Scholar]
  5. Boskou, D. (2006). Olive oil chemistry and technology. AOCS Press, Champaign, IL, 268 s, USA. [Google Scholar]
  6. Finotti, E., Beye, C., Nardo, N., Quaglia, G.B., Milin, C. & Giacometti, J. (2001). Physico-chemical characteristics of olives and olive oil from two mono-cultivars during various ripening phases. Nahrung/Food, 45(5), 350-352. [Google Scholar]
  7. Gul, M.K. & Seker, M. (2006). Comparative analysis of phytosterol components from rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 108: 759-765p. [Google Scholar]
  8. Gundogdu, M.A., Kaleci, N., Nergis, O. & Dogan, E. (2016). Farklı Zaman Periyotlarında Hasat Edilen Bazı Yabancı Kökenli Zeytin Çeşitlerinin Pomolojik ve Bazı Biyokimyasal Karakterlerindeki Değişimlerin Saptanması Zeytin Bilimi 6(2): 61–67. [Google Scholar]
  9. Gundogdu, M.A. & Kaynas, K. (2020). Investigation of fatty acid compositions and some pomological characteristics of different olive cultivars during maturation in cool subtropical condition of Turkey. Acta Hortic. 1299, 211-220. [Google Scholar]
  10. Gundogdu M.A. & Seker M. (2020). Determination of Some Chemical Characteristics and Volatile Components of Olive Oil in Geyikli Region. ÇOMÜ LJAR (2020) 1(1): 69-79. [Google Scholar]
  11. IOOC, (2007). Optimal Harvest Time. In: Tombesi A. ve Tombesi S., Eds. Production Techniques in Olive Growing. Artegraf S.A., Madrid. 319–327 p. [Google Scholar]
  12. IOOC, (2019). Trade Standard Applying to Olive Oils and Olive Pomace Oils Total sterol content. COI/T.15/NC No 3/Rev. 14 page 4 [Google Scholar]
  13. Lazzez, A., Perri, E., Caravita, M.A., Khlif, M. & Cossentini, M. (2008). Influence of olive maturity stage and geographical origin on some minor components in virgin olive oil of the chemlali variety. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 56(3), 982-988. [Google Scholar]
  14. Lukic, M., Lukic, I., Krapac, M., Sladonja, B. & Pilizˇota, V. (2013). Sterols and triterpene diols in olive oil as indicators of variety and degree of ripening. Food Chemistry, 136:251–258 p. [Google Scholar]
  15. Sanchez Casas, J., Bueno, E. O., Garcia, A. M. M., & Cano, M. M. (2004). Sterol and erythrodiol + uvaol content of virgin olive oils from cultivars of Extremadura (Spain). Food Chemistry, 87:225–230 p. [Google Scholar]
  16. Sonmez, A. (2015), Investıgation of Minor Components Obtained by Organic Olive Oil From Different Types Their Degree of Maturity. Master Thesis, Izmir Ege University Institute of Science and Technology, 139-150s. [Google Scholar]
  17. Seker, M., Gul, M. K., İpek, M., Toplu, C., & Kaleci, N. (2007). Screening and comparing tocopherols in the rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties using high-performance liquid chromatography. Inter. Jour. of Food Sci.and Nutr., 1-8. [Google Scholar]
  18. TGK, Türk Gıda Kodeksi. 2017. Zeytinyağı ve Prina Yağı Tebliği. [Google Scholar]
  19. Varzakas, T.H., Zakynthinos, G. & Arapoglou, D. (2010). Fruit ripening in relationship to oil quality and some quality characteristics of the Greek olive cultivar koroneiki. Italian Journal of Food Science, 22(4), 401. [Google Scholar]
  20. Yorulmaz, A., Erinc, H. & Tekin, A. (2013). Changes in olive and olive oil characteristics during maturation. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 90(5), 647-658. [Google Scholar]