Original article | Open Access
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research 2022, Vol. 6(2) 23-33
pp. 23 - 33 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiasr.2022.454.1
Published online: June 30, 2022 | Number of Views: 13 | Number of Download: 36
Olive oil obtained from the fruit of olive trees (Olea europaea L.) belonging to the Oleaceae family; basically consists of two parts: saponifiable and unsaponifiable parts. The saponifiable fraction represents about 98% by weight of the oil. On the contrary, the unsaponifiable fraction constitutes about 2% of the total oil weight.
Phytosterols constitute the largest part of the unsaponifiable fraction and are the most important parameter to establish the purity of olive oil. Olive oil quality is affected by many factors, the most important being the ripening stage. Phytosterol content changes with maturation. Because the metabolic events in its structure continue until the fruit ripens. This study was carried out in Ayvalık olive variety grown with organic and conventional growing techniques during the 2019 and 2020 seasons. Fruits obtained from Geyikli region of Çanakkale province were harvested in 8 different maturity stages (September– December) at 15-day intervals. Phytosterol contents of fruits and changes in phytosterols in olive ripening process were determined periodically by gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) technique.
At the end of the study, the total phytosterol content of the fruits harvested from both conventional and organic orchards during both production seasons in both years, depending on the maturity index. Phytosterol components were found to increase regularly until December, but it decrease after December. While the maximum total sterol amount was determining 2.008 g kg-1 on 08.12.2019, it was 2.520 g kg-1 on 06.12.2020. After this date, it was observed that the total sterol content decreased as a result of over-ripening.
Keywords: Olea europaea L., Maturity Index, Total sterol, Sterol components, β-sitosterol, chromatography
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