International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research
Abbreviation: IJIASR | ISSN (Print): 2602-4810 | ISSN (Online): 2602-4535 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiasr

Original article    |    Open Access
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research 2022, Vol. 6(4) 211-221

Determining The Accuracy of Dwell Position by Using Electron Energy with Gafchromic Film in High Dose Rate Brachytherapy Systems

Nural Öztürk & Nurdan Özbek

pp. 211 - 221   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiasr.2022.512.3

Published online: December 31, 2022  |   Number of Views: 8  |  Number of Download: 33


Abstract

Due to the general lack of darkroom and film processing equipment in many clinics, it is no longer possible to use radiation sensitive Xomat V radiographic film for High Dose Rate brachytherapy quality assurance. An alternative is to use radio chromic film that does not require processing. The aim of this study is to develop and clinically test the GafChromic film-based brachytherapy Quality Assurance (QA) system using different electron energies. As an electron source (6 MeV-9 MeV-12 MeV -15 MeV -18 MeV) (Elekta Synergy® Platform linear accelerator, Varian GM plus IX (Varian Medical Systems, Inc.USA), Varian brand cylinder, ring and tandem double ovoid applicators, RTQA2 and EBT3 GafChromic film were used. In RTQA2 films, images are obtained at high electron energies (12 MeV and above) at 300 Monitor Unit (MU), while images are obtained at all energies at 700 MU in irradiation using different electron energies and MUs. For the desired image quality depending on the material of the applicator used, it was determined that the image clarity increased as the energy, field size and MUs increased. In EBT3, the desired image could be obtained at 18 MeV and 2500 MU.  It is possible to obtain the desired image quality by using high-energy electrons, especially RTQA2 Gafchromic film, in determining the accuracy of the dwell position in brachytherapy. Since it has been determined that this method can be used easily in quality control tests, we think that this method is suitable for clinical use when necessary.

Keywords: Brachytherapy, Dwell Position, Electron Energy, RTQA2-EBT3 Models Gafchromic Film


How to Cite this Article

APA 6th edition
Ozturk, N. & Ozbek, N. (2022). Determining The Accuracy of Dwell Position by Using Electron Energy with Gafchromic Film in High Dose Rate Brachytherapy Systems . International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, 6(4), 211-221. doi: 10.29329/ijiasr.2022.512.3

Harvard
Ozturk, N. and Ozbek, N. (2022). Determining The Accuracy of Dwell Position by Using Electron Energy with Gafchromic Film in High Dose Rate Brachytherapy Systems . International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, 6(4), pp. 211-221.

Chicago 16th edition
Ozturk, Nural and Nurdan Ozbek (2022). "Determining The Accuracy of Dwell Position by Using Electron Energy with Gafchromic Film in High Dose Rate Brachytherapy Systems ". International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research 6 (4):211-221. doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2022.512.3.

References
  1. [1]. ESTRO-BOOKLET NO. 8. A practical guide to quality control of brachytherapy equipment. Edited by: Jack Venselaar, José Pérez-Calatayud. European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Radiotherapy, ESTRO Booklet No.8, 2004 – First edition. ISBN 90-804532-8©2004 by ESTRO [Google Scholar]
  2. [2]. Rivard MJ, Coursey BM, DeWerd LA et al. Update of AAPM Task Group No. 43 Report: a revised AAPM protocol for brachytherapy dose calculations. Med Phys 2004;31: 633–74. https://doi.org/10.1118/1.1646040 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  3. [3]. Rivard MJ, Butler WM, DeWerd LA et al. Supplement to the 2004 update of the AAPM Task Group No. 43 Report. Med Phys 2007; 34:2187–2205. https://doi.org/10.1118/1.27367 90. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  4. [4]. Daskalov GM, Kirov AS, Williamson JF. Analytical approach to heterogeneity correction factor calculation for brachytherapy. Med Phys 1998; 25:722–35. https://doi.org/10.1118/ 1.598254. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  5. [5]. Chandola RM, Tiwari S, Kowar MK et al. Effect of inhomogeneities and source position on dose distribution of nucletron high dose rate Ir-192 brachytherapy source by Monte Carlo simulation. J Cancer Res Ther 2010; 6:54–77. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.63567. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  6. [6]. Uniyal SC, Naithani UC, Sharma SD et al. Radiochromic film dosimetry of rectal inhomogeneity and applicator attenuation in high dose rate brachytherapy of uterine cervix. J Appl Clin Med Phys 2012; 13:66–75. https://doi.org/10.1120/jacmp.v13i1.3654. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  7. [7]. Kutcher J, Coia L, Gillin M et al. Comprehensive QA for Radiation Oncology: Report of AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 40, AAPM Report No. 46. American Association of Physicists in Medicine American Institute of Physics (AAPM), New York, 1994. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1118/1.597316%0Ahttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1118/1.597316%0Ahttps://aapm.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1118/1.597316. [Google Scholar]
  8. [8]. Nath R, Anderson LL, Meli J et al. Code of practice for brachytherapy physics: Report of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group No. 56. Med Phys 1997; 24:1557–98. https://doi.org/ 10.1118/1.597966. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  9. [9]. Jursinic PA.Quality Assurance Measurements for High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy without Film. J Appl Clin Med Phys 2014;15(1):246–61.https://doi.org/10.1120/jacmp.v15i1.4586. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  10. [10]. Niroomand RA, Blackwell CR, Coursey BM, et al. Radiochromic Film Dosimetry: Recommendations of AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 55. Med Phys 1998; 25(11): 2093–2115. https://doi.org/10.1118/1.598407.  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  11. [11] Williamson, J F. ‘Current Brachytherapy Quality Assurance Guidance: Does It Meet the Challenges of Emerging Image-Guided Technologies?’ Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys  2008;71 (1 SUPPL.): 18–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007. 07.2388. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  12. [12] Cormack RA. Quality assurance issues for computed tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging-guided brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys  2008;71:136-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.07.2389. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  13. [13] Thomadsen B, Lin S W, Laemmrich P, et al. Analysis of Treatment Delivery Errors in Brachytherapy Using Formal Risk Analysis Techniques. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003;57(5):1492–1508. https://doi.org/10.1016/S03603016(03) 01622-5. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  14. [14].Ravinder N, Lowell LA. Code of practice for brachytherapy physics: Report of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group No. 56, Med Phys 1997; Vol. 24, No. 10, doi.org/10.1118/1.597966 [Google Scholar]
  15. [15]. DeWerd  L A., Jursinic P, Kitchen R, et al Quality Assurance Tool for High Dose Rate Brachytherapy. Med Phys 1995; 22 (4): 435–40. https://doi.org/10.1118/1.597469. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  16. [16] Sayeg, J. A., and R. C. Gregory. A New Method for Characterizing Beta-Ray Ophthalmic Applicator Sources. Med Phys 1991;18 (3): 453–61. https://doi.org/10.1118/1.596693. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  17. [17] Evans, M. D.C., S. Devic, and E. B. Podgorsak. High Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Source Position Quality Assurance Using Radiochromic Film. Med Dosimetry 2007;32 (1): 13–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meddos.2006.10.001 [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  18. [18]. Niroomand-Rad A, Blackwell CR, Coursey BM, et al.Radiochromic Film Dosimetry: Recommendations of AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 55. Med Phys 1998; 25 (11): 2093–2115. https://doi.org/10.1118/1.598407.  [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  19. [19]. Hellebust, TP, Kirisits C, Berger D, et al. ‘Recommendations from Gynaecological (GYN) GEC-ESTRO Working Group: Considerations and Pitfalls in Commissioning and Applicator Reconstruction in 3D Image-Based Treatment Planning of Cervix Cancer Brachytherapy’. Radiot and Oncol 2010; 96 (2): 153–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2010. 06.004. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  20. [20]. Wachowicz  K, Thomas SD,  Fallone BG. Characterization of the Susceptibility Artifact around a Prostate Brachytherapy Seed in MRI. Med Phys 2006; 33 (12): 4459–67. https://doi.org/10.1118/1.2364052. [Google Scholar] [Crossref]