Pen Academic Publishing   |  ISSN: 2602-4810   |  e-ISSN: 2602-4535

Orjinal Araştırma Makalesi | Uluslararası Fen Araştırmalarında Yenilikçi Yaklaşımlar Dergisi 2018, Cil. 2(3) 88-102

Relationship Between Chemical Composition and User Perception on Wood-Charcoal Species Preference in Bauchi Metropolis, Nigeria

Faizu Ahmed Lame & Haruna Adamu

ss. 88 - 102   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/ijiasr.2018.152.2   |  Makale No: MANU-1807-06-0003.R2

Yayın tarihi: Ekim 22, 2018  |   Okunma Sayısı: 31  |  İndirilme Sayısı: 147


Özet

Urban least well-off and poor households in Bauchi Metropolis face challenge of accessing affordable, reliable and sustainable cooking and heating fuel supplies. As such, the urban least well-off and poor have leveraged their energy demands on use of wood-charcoals, which produced and utilise through mostly informal supply and demand chains that are associated to low efficiency in production methods and ineffective household utilisation factors that contribute to environmental and health dilapidation. This study sought to establish the relationship between physico-chemical characteristics of wood-charcoals commonly produced and utilised and users’ perception on charcoal species preference in Bauchi Metropolis. A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of the wood-charcoals. This was done prior to the field survey on perception preference to users to collaborate their views or otherwise on the burning and fuelling characteristics of the examined wood-charcoal species. A survey was undertaken using questionnaires to assess the users’ perception preference on the commonly used wood-charcoal species in terms of their solidity, ease of ignition, heat output intensity, rate of devolatilisation, burning time, ash generation and smoke. Of all the wood-charcoal species examined, Ficus platyphylla (Ganji) and Anogeissus leiocarpus (Marke) had low moisture contents (4.17, 4.60%, respectively), high calorific value (33.58, 30.09 Mj/kg, respectively) and low ash content (5.35, 6.51%, respectively) together with their glassy index evident by high aluminium, potassium, and silicon contents,  indicating that these charcoal species have high-quality combustion and fuel outputs compared to other charcoal species with least combustion and fuel characteristics. Despite these qualities, these species can’t provide cleaner energy that could cut pollutant emissions, and at the same time bring huge environmental quality and health benefits, yet users perceptibly give preference to these charcoal species based on their combustion and fuelling performance impression.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Wood-charcoal, users’ perception, combustion and fuel


Bu makaleye nasıl atıf yapılır?

APA 6th edition
Lame, F.A. & Adamu, H. (2018). Relationship Between Chemical Composition and User Perception on Wood-Charcoal Species Preference in Bauchi Metropolis, Nigeria . Uluslararası Fen Araştırmalarında Yenilikçi Yaklaşımlar Dergisi, 2(3), 88-102. doi: 10.29329/ijiasr.2018.152.2

Harvard
Lame, F. and Adamu, H. (2018). Relationship Between Chemical Composition and User Perception on Wood-Charcoal Species Preference in Bauchi Metropolis, Nigeria . Uluslararası Fen Araştırmalarında Yenilikçi Yaklaşımlar Dergisi, 2(3), pp. 88-102.

Chicago 16th edition
Lame, Faizu Ahmed and Haruna Adamu (2018). "Relationship Between Chemical Composition and User Perception on Wood-Charcoal Species Preference in Bauchi Metropolis, Nigeria ". Uluslararası Fen Araştırmalarında Yenilikçi Yaklaşımlar Dergisi 2 (3):88-102. doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2018.152.2.

Kaynakça
  1. Adegoke, C. O. Lawal, G. T. (1997). Preliminary Investigation of Sawdust as High Grade Solid Fuel. Journal of Renewal Energy, 1- 2: 102-107. [Google Scholar]
  2. AFREA/World Bank. (2011). Wood-Based Biomass Energy Development for Sub-Saharan Africa: Issues and Approaches. [Google Scholar]
  3. Bauchi State Ministry of Land and Survey. (2015). Geographical Location of Bauchi. [Google Scholar]
  4. Diarmaid, S. C. Patrick E. M. Christopher, M. R. Jenny, M. J. (2018). The effects of an additive on the release of potassium in biomass combustion. Fuel, 214: 647-655. [Google Scholar]
  5. Demirbas, A. (2002). Relationships between Heating Value and Lignin, Moisture, Ash and Extractive Contents of Biomass Fuels. Energy Exploration and Exploitation, 20: 105–111. [Google Scholar]
  6. Elsayed, Y. Dalibalta, S. Abu-Farha, N. (2016). Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Risks of Hookah Charcoal. Science of the Total Environment, 569–570: 262–268. [Google Scholar]
  7. Elsayed, Y., Dalibalta, S., Gomes, I., Fernandes, N., Alqtaishat, F. (2014). Chemical Composition and Potential Health Risks of Raw Arabian Incense (Bakhour). Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, 11: 21-29. [Google Scholar]
  8. Ekouevi, K and Tuntivate V. (2011). Household Energy Access for Cooking and Heating: lessons learned and the way forward. Washington (DC): World Bank; http: //dx.doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-9604-9. Retrieved on the 11/04/2018.  [Google Scholar]
  9. Enders, A. Hanley, K. Whitman, T. Joseph, S. Lehmann, J., 2012. Characterization of Bio-chars to Evaluate Recalcitrance and Agronomic Performance. Bio-resource Technology, 114: 644–653. [Google Scholar]
  10. Enwerem, C.K. (2006). The Geology of Area around Miri, Bauchi N-E sheet 149. Unpublished thesis at the geology Department, Faculty of Science, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria. [Google Scholar]
  11. FAO (1995): Industrial Charcoal Making. FAO Forestry Paper No. 63. Mechanical Wood Products Branch. Forest Industries Division. FAO Forestry Department. [Google Scholar]
  12. Graetz, R. D. and Skjemstad, J. O. (2003). The Charcoal Sink of Biomass Burning on the Australian Continent.CSIRO Atmospheric Research, 64: 1–61. [Google Scholar]
  13. Hammes, K. Smernik, R. J. Skjemstad, J. O. Herzog, A. Vogt, U. F. Schmidt, M. W. I. (2006). Synthesis and Characterisation of Laboratory-charred Grass Straw (Oryza saliva and Chestnut wood (Castanea sativa) as Reference Materials for Black Carbon Quantification. Organic Geochemistry, 37: 1629–1633. [Google Scholar]
  14. Kim, H. J. Lu, G. Q. Naruse, I. Yuan, J. Ohtake, K. (2001). Modelling Combustion Characteristics of Bio-coal Briquettes. Journal of Energy Resource and Technology, 123: 27–31. [Google Scholar]
  15. Kloss, S. Zehetner, F. Dellantonio, A. Hamid, R., Ottner, F. Liedtke, V. Schwanninger, M. Gerzabek, M. H. Soja, G. (2012). Characterization of Slow Pyrolysis Biochars. Effects of Feedstocks and Pyrolysis Temperature on Biochar Properties. Journal of Environmental Quality, 41: 990–1000. [Google Scholar]
  16. Maes, W. H. Verbist, B. (2012). Increasing the Sustainability of Household Cooking in Developing Countries: Policy Implications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review, 16: 4204–21. [Google Scholar]
  17. Mitchell, P. J. Dalley, T. S. L. Helleur, R. J. (2013). Preliminary Laboratory Production and Characterization of Bio-chars from Lignocellulosic Municipal Waste. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 99: 71–78. [Google Scholar]
  18. Mugo, F. and Ong, C. (2006). Lessons from Eastern Africa’s Unsustainable Charcoal Trade. World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi, Kenya. [Google Scholar]
  19. Nguyen, B. T. Lehmann, J. Hockaday, W. C. Joseph, S. Masiello, C. A. (2010). Temperature Sensitivity of Black Carbon Decomposition and Oxidation. Environmental Science and Technology, 44: 3324–3331. [Google Scholar]
  20. Onchieku, J. M. Chikamai, B. M. Rao, M. S. (2012). Optimum Parameters for the Formulation of Charcoal Briquettes Using Bagasse and Clay as Binder. European Journal of Sustainable Development, 1(3): 477–492. [Google Scholar]
  21. Rabier, F. Temmerman, M. Bohm, T. Hartmann, H. Rathbauer, J. Fernandez, M. (2006). Particle Density Determination of Pellets and Charcoal. Journal of Biomass and Bioenergy, 30: 954– 963. [Google Scholar]
  22. Soares, V. C. (2011). Thermal, Chemical and Physical Behaviour of Wood and Charcoal from Eucalyptus Grandisx Eucalyptus Urophyllaat Different Ages, PhD thesis on Wood Technology, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras, Brazil. [Google Scholar]
  23. Sotannde, O. A. Oluyege, A. O. Abah, G. B. (2010). Physical and Combustion Properties of Charcoal Briquettes from Neem Wood Residues. International Agrophysics, 24: 189-194. [Google Scholar]
  24. UNDP (2009). The Energy Access in Situation in Developing Countries: A Review Focusing on the Least Developed Countries and Sub-Saharan Africa. UNDP, New York, NY. [Google Scholar]
  25. UNDP and WHO (2009). The Energy Access Situation in Developing Countries: A Review Focusing on the Least Developed Countries and Sub-Saharan Africa. The Energy Access Situation in Developing Countries: A Review Focusing on the Least Developed Countries and Sub-Saharan Africa, New York. [Google Scholar]
  26. Van-Beukering, P. G. Kahyarara, E. Massey, S. di Prima, S. Hess, V. Makundi, K. van der Leeuw, A. (2007). Optimization of the Charcoal Chain in Tanzania. Poverty Reduction and Environment Management (PREM) Programme. Institute for Environmental Studies, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [Google Scholar]
  27. Vassilev, S. V. Baxter, D. Vassileva, C. G. (2014). An Overview of the Behaviour of Biomass During Combustion: part II. Ash Fusion and Ash Formation Mechanisms of Biomass Types. Fuel, 117: 152–83.  [Google Scholar]
  28. Vongsaysanaand, S. Achara, U. (2009). Comparison of the Physical and Chemical Properties of Briquette and Wood Charcoal in Khammouane Province, Lao PDR. Environment and Natural Resources Journal, 1(7): 1-13. [Google Scholar]
  29. Wang, L. Hustad J. E. Skreiberg, Ø. Skjevrak G. Grønli, M. A. (2012). Critical Review on Additives to Reduce Ash Related Operation Problems in Biomass Combustion Applications. Energy Process, 20: 20–9. [Google Scholar]
  30. Yang, Y. B. Ryu, C. Khor, A. Yates, N. E. Sharifi, V.N. Swithenbank, J. (2005). Effect of Fuel Properties on Biomass Combustion. Fuel, 84: 2116–2130. [Google Scholar]