Pen Academic Publishing   |  ISSN: 2602-4810   |  e-ISSN: 2602-4535

Volume 2 Issue 2 (June 2018)

Antibiotic and Disinfectant Susceptibility Patterns of Airborne Bacteria Isolated from Restaurants in Nigeria

Bashar Haruna Gulumbe & Abdullahi Hassan Kawo

pp. 41 - 57   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiasr.2018.140.1   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1803-23-0001.R5


Antibiotics resistant airborne bacteria in restaurants have considerable effect on not only the life of food handlers, but also the quality and stability of food products. This study was carried out with the objectives of identifying the type of airborne bacteria associated with the restaurants and their susceptibility patterns to commonly used antibiotics and disinfectants. Using depositional sampling technique, air samples were collected from restaurant kitchens and dining rooms and cultured aerobically. Bacterial isolates were identified based on biochemical tests and selective/differential plating. Among the ten (10) bacterial species isolated and identified, Staphylococcus aureus 7 (19%), Micrococcus spp. 6 (17%), Staphylococcus spp. 5 (14%), and Bacillus subtilis 4 (11%) were predominant. A total of fourteen antibiotics were used in this study:  Amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (AU) (25), gentamycin (CN) (10μg), pefloxacin (PEF) (10μg), ofloxacin (OFX) (30μg), streptomycin (S) (30μg), chloramphenicol (CH) (30μg), co-trimoxazole. (SXT) (30μg), fluoroquinolone (SP) (10μg), ciprofloxacin (CPX) ((10μg)), amoxicillin (AM) (30μg), ampiclox (APX) (30μg), erythromycin (E) (19μg), ceftriaxone (CTR) (30μg) and cefuroxime (Z) (20μg). Antimicrobial susceptibility test results revealed that S. aureus had susceptibility of 6 (85.7%) each to ciprofloxacin and gentamycin but resistant to amoxicillin, ampiclox and cefuroxime while Pseudomonas aeruginosa had susceptibility of 3 (100%) each to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid and gentamycin but resistant to fluoroquinolone and co-trimoxazole. Susceptibility to Jik and Dettol was appreciable; they were bacteriostatic at 25-100% concentrations (Minimum Inhibition Concentrations (MIC) and bactericidal (Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC) at mostly 100% concentration. ‘Mama Lemon’ was bacteriostatic to only two isolates at 50 and 100% concentrations but not bactericidal. Enterobacter sp. was susceptible to neither the antibiotics nor the disinfectants.  All the three disinfectants showed no efficacy at concentrations lower than 25%.  The presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria which are not susceptible to antibiotics and disinfectants in the air of restaurants constitutes a serious health hazard not only to the restaurant workers and their customers, but also the general public.

Keywords: Indoor air contamination, Bioaerosols, Bacteria, Restaurants, Susceptibility pattern, Antimicrobials, Disinfectants, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, Minimum Bactericidal Concentration.

Effect of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against Mosquitos (Aedes aegypti) in vitro conditions

M. N. Yakubu, F. M. Adamu, A. A. Barde, M. Muhammad & F. Tahir

pp. 58 - 68   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiasr.2018.140.2   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1803-29-0005.R3


Entomopathogenic fungi are promising new biological tool for the control of pests and pose no risk to man and non-targeted organisms. Isolation and identification of native entomopathogenic fungi in a field is necessary for the successful control of pest in a particular region.

Experiment was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi from different soil and their efficacy in the control of mosquitos. Using rain beetle, the fungi were isolated by insect baiting method using PDA. Morphological identification of the isolated fungi showed Metarhizium anisopliae. The result of the study showed a variation in the occurrence of the Metarhizium anisopliae at the three locations. The pathogenicity of the isolated fungi was tested on Aedes eagyptii larvae in three different concentrations (1.8.103, 3.6.103 and 4.5.103 conidia/ml). The result showed a progressive increased in larval mortality with an increased number of days. The mortality varied from 4 to 100%. Rapid larval mortality was observed two days after spraying, mortality was highest and relatively uniform at higher concentration. No mortality was observed in the control treatments. The test showed LC50 value of 14.5.103, 12.9.103, 1.4.103, 0.4.103, 0.4.103 and 0.1.103 conidia/ml after exposure for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 days respectively.

The outcome of this research showed variation in the diversity of entomopathogenic fungi in different soil location.  Metarhizium anisopliae look promising in the control of the Aedes eagyptii mosquito larvae and should be tested in the field, or this could be the starting point for a genetic experiment.

Keywords: Metarhizium anisopliae, Aedes eagyptii, biocontrol

Potential Solutions to Combat the Antibiotic and Pesticide Problem in Honey

Ekim Mor & Seyhun Yurdugül

pp. 69 - 78   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijiasr.2018.140.3   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1805-24-0003.R1


The presence of pesticides and antibiotics are regarded as a great problem in honey since honey should be one of the purest food in the world.  This is mostly due to the uncontrollable and intensive use of pesticides in agriculture and preference of antibiotics in apiculture for getting rid of bacterial infections. This review emphasizes the importance of these substances as well as the health-related problems in honey and proposing different novel food processing techniques to combat this problem without disrupting the physicochemical properties of honey.  Among these novel technologies, cold plasma, ultrasonication, and high hydrostatic pressure are either reported or recommended to fight against unwanted organisms causing quality loss in honey.  Therefore using these technologies were reported to be environmentally friendly, as since they are included in non-thermal methods, avoiding temperature abuse and they are cost-independent.  Cold plasma technology is a recommended method to get rid of not only viable bacteria but also it is found to be effective against spores.

Keywords: antibiotics, pesticides, honey, cold plasma, ultrasonication, high hydrostatic pressure.